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  Wednesday 18 January 2017 15:59 GMT  

Aviation Theory

Navigational Charts

Previous Chapter Intersections -- Table of Contents -- Sectional Terminal Area and WAC Next Chapter

Pages : 1) Aeronautical Charts | 2) Related Publications

INTRODUCTION

There are a number of different types of charts used in aerial navigation. The following sections from the AIM discuss the types of charts and some general information on each. Some of the charts mentioned in the AIM have limited or no application in Flight Simulator and are only mentioned here for completeness. The charts applicable to flight simulation are discussed in more detail in the lessons on each specific chart type. Besides the charts mentioned in the AIM, Jeppesen Sanderson also publishes charts which are similar to each of charts available from government sources.

From AIM Chapter 9. Aeronautical Charts and Related Publications...

9-1-1. GENERAL

Aeronautical charts for the U.S., its territories, and possessions are produced by the National Ocean Service (NOS), a part of the Department of Commerce, from information furnished by the FAA.

9-1-2. OBTAINING CIVIL AERONAUTICAL CHARTS

Enroute Aeronautical Charts, Terminal Procedure Publication Charts, Regional Airport/Facilities Directories, and other publications described in this Chapter are available upon subscription and one time sales from:

NOAA Distribution Branch (N/CG33)
National Ocean Service
Riverdale, Maryland 20737-1199
Telephone: (301) 436-6990

Charts may also be purchased directly from authorized NOS chart agents who are located worldwide. A listing of these chart agents may be found in the back of the NOS' Aeronautical Charts and Related Products free catalog. Many fixed-base operators are NOS chart agents.

9-1-3. A FEW OF THE CHARTS AND PRODUCTS THAT ARE AVAILABLE

  • Sectional and VFR Terminal Area Charts
  • World Aeronautical Charts (U.S.)
  • Enroute, Low, High, and Alaska
  • Oceanic Planning Charts
  • Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP)
  • Alaska Terminal Publication
  • Helicopter Route Charts
  • Airport/Facilities Directory
  • Supplement Alaska and Chart Supplement Pacific

9-1-4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF EACH CHART SERIES

  1. Sectional and VFR Terminal Area Charts:
    1. These charts are designed for visual navigation of slow and medium speed aircraft. They are produced to the following scales:
      1. Sectional Charts - 1:500,000 (1 inch = 6.86 NM)
      2. VFR Terminal Area Charts - 1:250,000 (1 inch = 3.43 NM)
    2. Topographic information features the portrayal of relief and a judicious selection of visual check points for VFR flight. VFR Terminal Area Charts include populated places, drainage roads, railroads, and other distinctive landmarks. Aeronautical information includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions, and related data. These charts also depict the airspace designated as "Class B Airspace", which provides for the control or segregation of all aircraft operating within that airspace. The Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands Terminal Area Chart contains basically the same information as that shown on Sectional and Terminal Area Charts. It includes the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Planning Chart on the reverse side (See Planning Charts). Charts are revised semiannually except for several Alaskan Sectionals and the Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands Terminal Area which are revised annually.
  2. World Aeronautical Charts
    These charts are designed to provide a standard series of aeronautical charts, covering land areas of the world, at a size and scale convenient for navigation by moderate speed aircraft. They are produced at a scale of 1:1,000,000 (1 inch = 13.7 NM). Topographic information includes cities and towns, principal roads, railroads, distinctive landmarks, drainage, and relief. The latter is shown by spot elevation, contours, and gradient tints. Aeronautical information includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, airways, restricted areas, obstructions, and other pertinent data. These charts are revised annually except several Alaskan charts and the Mexican/Caribbean charts which are revised every 2 years.
  3. Enroute Low Altitude Charts
    These charts are designed to provide aeronautical information for enroute navigation under IFR in the low altitude stratum. The series also includes Enroute Area Charts, which furnish terminal data at a large scale in congested areas and are included with the subscription to the series. Information includes the portrayal of L/MF and VHF airways, limits of controlled airspace, position identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, minimum enroute and obstruction clearance altitudes, airway distances, reporting points, special use airspace areas, military training routes, and related information. Charts are printed back to back and are revised every 56 days effective with the date of airspace changes. An Enroute Change Notice may be issued as required.
  4. Enroute High Altitude Charts
    These charts are designed to provide aeronautical information for enroute navigation under IFR in the high altitude stratum. Information includes the portrayal of jet routes, position, identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, distances, time zones, special use airspace areas, and related information. Charts are revised every 56 days effective with the date of airspace changes. An Enroute Change Notice may be issued as required.
  5. Alaska Enroute Charts (Low and High)
    These charts are produced in a low altitude series and a high altitude series with the purpose and makeup identical to Enroute Low and High Altitude Charts described above. Charts are revised every 56 days effective with the date of airspace changes. An Enroute Change Notice may be issued as required.
  6. Charted VFR Flyway Planning Chart
    These charts are designed to identify flight paths clear of the major controlled traffic flows. The program is intended to provide charts showing multiple VFR routings through high density traffic areas which may be used as an alternative to flight within Class B airspace. Ground references are provided as guides for improved visual navigation. These charts are not intended to discourage VFR operations within the Class B airspace, but are designed for information and planning purposes. They are produced at a scale of 1:250,000 (1 inch = 3.43 NM). These charts are revised semiannually and are published on the back of selected VFR Terminal Area Charts.
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  8. Planning Charts
    1. U.S. IFR/VFR Planning Chart - This chart is designed for preflight and enroute flight planning for IFR/VFR flights. It is produced at a scale of 1:3,400,000 (1 inch = 46.63 NM). Information includes the depiction of low altitude LF/MF and VHF airways and mileages, navigational facilities, airports, special use airspace areas, cities, time zones, major drainage, and a directory of airports with their airspace classification. This chart is revised annually.
    2. Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Planning Chart - This chart is designated for preflight planning for VFR flights. It is produced at a scale of 1:6,270,551 (1 inch = 86 NM). This chart is on the reverse of the Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands Terminal Area Chart. Information includes mileage between Airports of Entry, a selection of special use airspace areas, and a Directory of Airports with their available facilities and servicing. (See Figure 9-1-6)
    3. North Atlantic Route Chart - This five color chart is designed for use by air traffic controllers in monitoring transatlantic flights and by FAA planners. Oceanic control areas, coastal navigation aids, major coastal airports, and oceanic reporting points are depicted. Geographic coordinates for NAVAIDs and reporting points are included. The chart may be used for preflight and inflight planning. This chart is revised each 24 weeks. The chart available in two sizes, full size (58 by 41 inches) scale: 1:5,500,000; half size (29 by 20 1/2 inches) scale: 1:11,000,000.
    4. North Pacific Oceanic Route Chart - This chart series, like the North Atlantic Route Chart series, is designed for FAA air traffic controllers' use in monitoring transoceanic air traffic. Charts are available in two scales: one 1:12,000,000 composite small scale planning chart, which covers the entire North Pacific, and four 1:7,000,000 Area Charts. They are revised every 56 days. The charts are available unfolded (flat only) and contain established intercontinental air routes including all reporting points with geographic positions. {North Pacific}
  9. Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP)
    This publication contains charts depicting Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP), Standard Terminal Arrivals (STAR), and Standard Instrument Departures (SID).
    1. Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts - IAP charts portray the aeronautical data which is required to execute instrument approaches to airports. Each chart depicts the IAP, all related navigation data, communications information, and an airport sketch. Each procedure is designated for use with a specific electronic navigational aid, such as ILS, VOR, NDB, RNAV, etc. Airport Diagram Charts, where published, are included.
    2. Standard Instrument Departure (SID) Charts - These charts are designed to expedite clearance delivery and to facilitate transition between takeoff and enroute operations. They furnish pilots departure routing clearance information in graphic and textual form.
    3. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Charts - These charts are designed to expedite ATC arrival procedures and to facilitate transition between enroute and instrument approach operations. They present to the pilot preplanned IFR ATC arrival procedures in graphic and textual form. Each STAR procedure is presented as a separate chart and may serve a single airport or more than one airport in a given geographic location.
      These charts are published in 16 bound volumes covering the conterminous U.S. and the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands. Each volume is superseded by a new volume each 56 days. Changes to procedures occurring between the 56 day publication cycle is reflected in a Change Notice volume, issued on the 28 day midcycle. These changes are in the form of a new chart. The publication of a new 56 day volume incorporates all the changes and replaces the preceding volume and the change notice. The volumes are 5 3/8 by 8 1/4 inches and are bound on the top edge.
  10. Alaska Terminal Publication
    1. This publication contains charts depicting all terminal flight procedures in the State of Alaska for civil and military aviation. They are:
      1. Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts
      2. Standard Instrument Departure (SID) Charts
      3. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Charts
      4. Airport Diagram Charts
      5. Radar Minimums
    2. All supplementary supporting data; that is, IFR Takeoff and Departure Procedures, IFR Alternate Minimums, Rate of Descent Table, Inoperative Components Table, etc., is also included.
    3. The Alaska Terminal is published in a bound book, 5 3/8 inches by 8 1/4 inches. The publication is issued every 56 days with provisions for an as required "Terminal Change" on the 28-day midpoint.
  11. Helicopter Route Charts
    1. Prepared under the auspices of the FAA Helicopter Route Chart Program, these charts enhance helicopter operator access into, egress from, and operation within selected high density traffic areas. The scale is 1:125,000; however, some include smaller scale insets. Graphic information includes urban tint, principal roads, pictorial symbols, and spot elevations. Aeronautical information includes routes, operating zones, altitudes or flight ceilings/bases, heliports, helipads, NAVAIDs, special use airspace, selected obstacles, ATC and traffic advisory radio communications frequencies, Class B surface area tint, and other important flight aids. These charts are revised when significant aeronautical information changes and/or safety related events occur. Historically, new editions are published about every 2 years. Because of the long service life of these charts, all new editions of the helicopter route charts will be printed on a plastic material. This material will enhance their durability over their life cycle. See the "Dates of Latest Editions" for current editions.
    2. Air traffic facility managers are responsible for determining the need for new chart development or existing chart revision. Therefore, requests for new charts or revisions to existing charts should be directed to these managers. Guidance pertinent to mandatory chart features and managerial evaluation of requests is contained in FAA Order 7210.3, Facility Operation and Administration.
  12. Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS) Charts: SMGCS charts are designed to expedite the efficient and safe flow of ground traffic under low visibility conditions. These charts represent a specific airport layout and are identified as "SMGCS Taxi Chart."

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Read on in part 2: Related Publications

Previous Chapter Intersections -- Table of Contents -- Sectional Terminal Area and WAC Next Chapter

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